28 de Outubro de 2012

As subturmas 13, 14, 15 e 16 deverão responder à seguinte questão:


- O quadrado mágico de Kaldor corresponde a uma síntese da teoria quantitativa da moeda?

publicado por GWOM às 02:44

publicado por GWOM às 02:33

When the accumulation of wealth is no longer of high social importance, there will be great changes in the code of morals. We shall be able to rid ourselves of many of the pseudo-moral principles which have hag-ridden us for two hundred years, by which we have exalted some of the most distasteful of human qualities into the position of the highest virtues. We shall be able to afford to dare to assess the money-motive at its true value. The love of money as a possession — as distinguished from the love of money as a means to the enjoyments and realities of life — will be recognised for what it is, a somewhat disgusting morbidity, one of those semi-criminal, semi-pathological propensities which one hands over with a shudder to the specialists in mental disease ... But beware! The time for all this is not yet. For at least another hundred years we must pretend to ourselves and to everyone that fair is foul and foul is fair; for foul is useful and fair is not. Avarice and usury and precaution must be our gods for a little longer still. For only they can lead us out of the tunnel of economic necessity into daylight.

  • "The Future", Essays in Persuasion (1931) Ch. 5, JMK, CW, IX, pp.329 - 331, Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren (1930)
publicado por GWOM às 02:33

“In order to preserve, in a money economy, the tendencies towards a stage of equilibrium which are described by general economic theory, it would be necessary to secure the existence of all the conditions, which the theory of neutral money has to establish. It is however very probable that this is practically impossible. It will be necessary to take into account the fact that the existence of a generally used medium of exchange will always lead to the existence of long-term contractsin terms of this medium of exchange, which will have been concluded in the expectation of a certain future price level. It may further be necessary to take into account the fact that many other prices possess a considerable degree of rigidityand will be particularly difficult to reduce. All these ” frictions” which obstruct the smooth adaptation of the price system to changed conditions, which would be necessary if the money supply were to be kept neutral, are of course of the greatest importance for all practical problems of monetary policy. And it may be necessary to seek for a compromise between two aims which can be realized only alternatively: the greatest possible realization of the forces working toward a state of equilibrium, and the avoidance of excessive frictional resistance.  But it is important to realize fully that in this case the elimination of the active influence of money [on all relative prices, the time structure of production, and the relations between production, consumption, savings and investment], has ceased to be the only, or even a fully realizable, purpose of monetary policy. ”


The true relationship between the theoretical concept of neutral money, and the practical ideal of monetary policy is, therefore, that the former provides one criterion for judging the latter; the degree to which a concrete system approaches the condition of neutrality is one and perhaps the most important, but not the only criterion by which one has to judge the appropriateness of a given course of policy. It is quite conceivable that a distortion of relative prices and a misdirection of production by monetary influences could only be avoided if, firstly, the total money stream remained constant, and secondly, all prices were completely flexible, and, thirdly, all long term contracts were based on a correct anticipation of future price movements. This would mean that, if the second and third conditions are not given, the ideal could not be realized by any kind of monetary policy.”

publicado por GWOM às 02:32

21 de Outubro de 2012

Ler este artigo do Economist sobre o modelo tributário sueco:


The new model

A bit more unequal, a lot more efficient

SALTSJÖBADEN, A CHARMING seaside town on the outskirts of Stockholm, has an iconic place in Swedish economic history. The “Saltsjöbaden Accord”, signed there between unions and employers in 1938, ushered in the consensus system of labour relations that remains a pillar of Sweden’s economic model. Nowadays the town is famous for a different reason. It is one of Stockholm’s fanciest suburbs, and the setting for “Sunny Side”, a popular television comedy that pokes fun at the country’s new rich. In the show, Saltsjöbaden’s yuppy residents fret over how to get their babies into the best nursery. A badly behaved child is threatened with banishment to Fisksätra, a poor enclave a few train stops away, where immigrants from 100 countries cram into dilapidated blocks of flats.



publicado por GWOM às 23:42

Duelos básicos:



a) John Maynard Keynes vs. Friedrich Von Hayek



b) John Kenneth Galbraith vs. Milton Friedman



Trabalho escrito a entregar no dia 26/10 (até 0h00, por mail - Subs. 13, 14, 15 e 16): Com que autores se identificam mais?

publicado por GWOM às 18:26

06 de Outubro de 2012

ACÓRDÃO N.º 353/2012

a) Declara-se a inconstitucionalidade, com força obrigatória geral, por viola­ção do princípio da igualdade, consagrado no artigo 13.º da Constituição da República Portuguesa, das normas constantes dos artigos 21.º e 25.º, da Lei n.º 64-B/2011, de 30 de dezembro (Orçamento do Estado para 2012).

b) Ao abrigo do disposto no artigo 282.º, n.º 4, da Constituição da República Portuguesa, determina-se que os efeitos desta declaração de inconstitucionalidade não se apliquem à suspensão do pagamento dos subsídios de férias e de Natal, ou quaisquer prestações correspondentes aos 13.º e, ou, 14.º meses, relativos ao ano de 2012.

Pelos fundamentos expostos, o Tribunal Constitucional decide não declarar a inconstitucionalidade, com força obrigatória geral, das normas constantes dos artigos 19.º, 20.º e 21.º da Lei n.º 55-A/2010, de 31 de Dezembro (Lei do Orçamento de Estado para 2011).

publicado por GWOM às 02:35

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